The Two-humped or Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) is a large, even-toed ungulate of camel family (Camelidae). From the present living camel species, the Two-humped camel is much rarer occurred than the One-humped camel or dromedary (Camelus dromedarius).
The first Two-humped camels in the „Rakši” were imported in March 2008.
Central Asia is considered to be the homeland of camels. Camels are naturally found in the Gobi Desert, located between Mongolia and China. The Gobi desert has very severe weather conditions – in the summer temperatures are around +45 degrees, but in winter down to -40 degrees. Camels as a livestock are grown in Afghanistan, Turkey and many countries of Central Asia.
In the humps camel accumulates fat reserves to use in times of starvation. It can accumulate up to 35 kg of fat. Camel is a ruminant. This means that the chewed food come into the first part of the big stomach, and when the animal is resting, the food returns to the oral cavity and is digested again. In a desert camels can live without water for a long time because they are able to regulate their temperature. Camels can withstand coldness up to -30 degrees, significantly reducing their body temperature, whereas at a daytime by +44 degrees, their temperature increases very slowly due to thick wool, so the camel does not sweat and lose the valuable liquid. Camel’s diet consists of herbaceous plants, leaves, shrubs and vegetables. After a drought period in 10 minutes camel can drink 115 litres of water.
Camels have nails, but the whole weight is based on the fat pads in the footsteps. In this way they are adapted for walking on the sand. Camel’s nostrils are soft so that it can close them during the sandstorms.
The male camels attract females by throwing their heads back, grinding their teeth and inflating cheeks. Usually mating occurs in February and after 13 months a calf borns. Mothers fed their calves up to 1 or even 2 years of age. When humps are developed, male animals are driven out of the herd, but the females stay. Young camels are lonely wandering in the desert until establish their own harem. While wandering, they try to attract females by marking them with the back of the head, where they have a special gland that spreads the scent while rubbing along females. Camel’s lifespan is 45 years. It weighs in the range of 450 to 650 kg.